THE UNITED STATES. 483 One of the great drawbacks in the South is the labor question. Owing partly to the climate and partly to the absence of a white population trained to industrial pursuits, it is necessary to depend upon negroes, and they have had no education in this line of work. The greater part of those in the Southern States are entirely improvident, and many will work only long enough to get a little cash. A summary discharge has no terrors, as living is cheap and their wants few: I was told by one of the furnace managers in the South that he has an average of three names on his payroll every year for each job. The two idle men were spending most of their money for liquor and in gambling games, while a certain proportion never worked, but devoted their time to politics, and made speeches on the equality of colored men and their right to occupy the highest positions of the land. Sub. XXIIg.—Johnstown: The western central part of Pennsylvania is usually considered a district by itself, the statistics including the output of the counties of Cambria, Jefferson, Armstrong, "Westmoreland and Fayette. The last two have already been considered as part of the Pittsburgh district, while Jefferson and Armstrong are of little importance. It may, therefore, be well to consider Cambria County by itself, since the plant of the Cambria Steel Company, at Johnstown, is the predominant works in this part of the State. The district produces no ore and the supply is brought from Lake Superior, where the company owns extensive mines in the Marquette, Menominee and Mesabi districts. The coke comes partly from Connellsville and partly from a new installation of by-product ovens which runs on the leaner coals drawn from mines within the limits of the works. The plant has four converters and fifteen 50-ton furnaces. It not only makes a large tonnage of standard rails, but is an important factor in beam and structural work, and has large special shops, called the Gautier Department, wherein special steels are worked into springs,'forks and a thousand similar products. SEO. XXIIh.—Steelton: Ranking fifth among the pig-iron and steel-producing districts of the United States is the district of Dauphin and Lebanon counties, in Pennsylvania. More than half of all the pig-iron is made in the furnaces of The Pennsylvania Steel -Company and most of the steel at its plant at Steelton, near Haxrisburg.